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Philippines "RH Bill" of 2011: the shape of things to come?
The Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population and Development Act of 2011

The "RH Bill" (2011)  in brief

  • The following sections of the consolidated "RH Bill" of 2011 are of particular interest to freedom of conscience issues. 

  • For the full text of the bill, see:
    • The Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population and Development Act of 2011 [html] [pdf]

  • For the amendments requested by the bill sponsors, see Letter from Edcel C. Lagman to Chairman of Committee on Population and Family Relations [html] [pdf]

Consolidated Text of the Reproductive Health Bill (HB4244)
SEC. 1. Title

This Act shall be known as the "The Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population and Development Act of 2011."

SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy

1.  The bill declares a right to reproductive health (defined below) to be a "human right," a claim that is legally and philosophically in dispute.  A universal basic human right must pertain to "all persons."  This includes single people (Comment 6), even though marital status is not listed as a ground of discrimination.  It must aslo include everyone without consideration of  preferences in sexual partners.  This is confirmed by the reference to "sexual orientation."

2.  Political/ideological concepts and terminology are transformed into "health concerns."  Gender equality (defined below) implies more than equality between the sexes. It posits the existence of more than two genders.

The State recognizes and guarantees the exercise of the universal basic human right to reproductive health by all persons, particularly of parents, couples and women, consistent with their religious convictions, cultural beliefs and the demands of responsible parenthood. Toward this end, there shall be no discrimination against any person on grounds of sex, age, religion, sexual orientation, disabilities, political affiliation and ethnicity.

Moreover, the State recognizes and guarantees the promotion of gender equality, equity and women's empowerment as a health and human rights concern. The advancement and protection of women's human rights shall be central to the efforts of the State to address reproductive health care. As a distinct but inseparable measure to the guarantee of women's rights, the State recognizes and guarantees the promotion of the welfare and rights of children.

3.  The state is to be the guarantor of "universal access" to reproductive health care (defined below).  This must include single people as well as those of various "genders." No similar state obligations are recognized with respect to other forms of health care, such as palliative care, even in the National Health Insurance Act.

4.  "Infringement" need not imply actual violation.  This has implications for the expression of religious beliefs and practices based on religious beliefs.

The State likewise guarantees universal access to medically-safe, legal, affordable, effective and quality reproductive health care services, methods, devices, supplies and relevant information and education thereon even as it prioritizes the needs of women and children, among other underprivileged sectors.

The State shall eradicate discriminatory practices, laws and policies that infringe on a person's exercise of reproductive health rights.

SEC. 3. Guiding Principles

The following principles constitute the framework upon which this Act is anchored:

a) Freedom of choice, which is central to the exercise of right, must be fully guaranteed by the State;

5.  The bill is directed at anyone who is at least 11 years old (see "Adolescence").  Re: "adult individuals," see Comments 1, 2 & 3.

b) Respect for, protection and fulfillment of reproductive health and rights seek to promote the rights and welfare of couples, adult individuals, women and adolescents;

6.   Reproductive health care is defined below.  The bill presumes but does not define a "right to health."  (See Comments 1 and 2.)

c) Since human resource is among the principal asset of the country, maternal health, safe delivery of healthy children and their full human development and responsible parenting must be ensured through effective reproductive health care;

d) The provision of medically safe, legal, accessible, affordable and effective reproductive health care services and supplies is essential in the promotion of people's right to health, especially of the poor and marginalized;

7.  Family planning as defined does not include artificial reproduction (which is inconsistent with the definition of reproductive health) but does include potential embryocides.  Were abortion legalized, the state would be obliged to provide access to it. 

The obligation noted in (f) requires the State to promote childbearing by single people and unmarried couples, a practice that some people find morally objectionable.  Consistent with the definition of reproductive health, this subsection also implies the obligation to provide artificial reproductive services.

e) The State shall promote, without bias, all effective natural and modern methods of family planning that are medically safe and legal;

f) The State shall promote programs that: (1) enable couples, individuals and women to have the number and spacing of children and reproductive spacing they desire with due consideration to the health of women and resources available to them; (2) achieve equitable allocation and utilization of resources; (3) ensure effective partnership among the national government, local government units and the private sector in the design, implementation, coordination, integration, monitoring and evaluation of people-centered programs to enhance quality of life and environmental protection; (4) conduct studies to analyze demographic trends towards sustainable human development and (5) conduct scientific studies to determine safety and efficacy of alternative medicines and methods for reproductive health care development;

g) The provision of reproductive health information, care and supplies shall be the joint responsibility of the National Government and the Local Government Units (LGUs);

8.  Sub-section (h) suggests the possibility of coercion by the state to ensure "active participation." Section 25 authorizes such measures.  See Comment 33.

h) Active participation by non-government, women's, people's, civil society organizations and communities is crucial to ensure that reproductive health and population and development policies, plans, and programs will address the priority needs of the poor, especially women;

i) While this Act recognizes that abortion is illegal and punishable by law, the government shall ensure that all women needing care for post-abortion complications shall be treated and counseled in a humane, non-judgmental and compassionate manner;

j) here shall be no demographic or population targets and the mitigation of the population growth rate is incidental to the promotion of reproductive health and sustainable human development;

9.  Political/ideological concepts and terminology are transformed into "health" issues.

k) Gender equality and women empowerment are central elements of reproductive health and population and development;

l) The limited resources of the country cannot be suffered to be spread so thinly to service a burgeoning multitude making allocations grossly inadequate and effectively meaningless;

m) Development is a multi-faceted process that calls for the coordination and integration of policies, plans, programs and projects that seek to uplift the quality of life of the people, more particularly the poor, the needy and the marginalized; and

n) That a comprehensive reproductive health program addresses the needs of people throughout their life cycle.

SEC. 4. Definition of Terms

For the purposes of this Act, the following terms shall be defined as follows:

Adolescence refers to the period of physical and physiological development of an individual from the onset of puberty to complete growth and maturity which usually begins between eleven (11) to thirteen (13) years and terminating at eighteen (18) to twenty (20) years of age;

10.  "Among others" indicates that the definition can be expanded; subsequent terms suggest limitless expansion.

Adolescent Sexuality refers to, among others, the reproductive system, gender identity, values and beliefs, emotions, relationships and sexual behavior at adolescence;

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) . . . [See full text]

Anti-Retroviral Medicines (ARVs) . . .[See full text]

Basic Emergency Obstetric Care  . . .[See full text]

Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care  . . .[See full text]

11. Includes religious denominations and denominational health care employers.

Employer refers to any natural or juridical person who hires the services of a worker. The term shall not include any labor organization or any of its officers or agents except when acting as an employer;

12. Includes single persons and unmarried couples of any sex.  Restricted to birth prevention: does not include artificial reproduction, which is inconsistent with the definition of reproductive health. See also definition of modern methods of family planning.

Family Planning refers to a program which enables couples, individuals and women to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children, acquire relevant information on reproductive health care, services and supplies and have access to a full range of safe, legal, affordable, effective natural and modern methods of limiting and spacing pregnancy;

13.  Implies more than equality between the sexes. "Sexual orientation" is undefined and need not be limited to homosexual inclinations.  Similarly, the notion of "gender identity" may posit the existence of more than two genders.

Gender Equality refers to the absence of discrimination on the basis of a person's sex, sexual orientation and gender identity in opportunities, allocation of resources or benefits and access to services;

Gender Equity refers to fairness and justice in the distribution of benefits and responsibilities between women and men, and often requires women-specific projects and programs to end existing inequalities;

14.  Includes all private and denominational health care facilities as well as individual health care workers.

Healthcare Service Provider refers to (1) health care institution, which is duly licensed and accredited and devoted primarily to the maintenance and operation of facilities for health promotion, disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care of individuals suffering from illness, disease, injury, disability or deformity, or in need of obstetrical or other medical and nursing care; (2) a health care professional, who is a doctor of medicine, a nurse, or a midwife; (3) public health worker engaged in the delivery of health care services; and (4) barangay health worker who has undergone training programs under any accredited government and non-government organization and who voluntarily renders primarily health care services in the community after having been accredited to function as such by the local health board in accordance with the guidelines promulgated by the Department of Health (DOH);

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) . . .[See full text]

Male Responsibility . . .[See full text]

Maternal Death Review . . . [See full text]

15.  Includes morally controversial drugs, devices and procedures: contraceptives, potential embryocides,  abortifacients, and contraceptive sterilization.  Does not include artificial reproduction; this is inconsistent with the definition of reproductive health. See also Family Planning.

Modern Methods of Family Planning refer to safe, effective and legal methods, whether the natural, or the artificial that are registered with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the DOH, to prevent pregnancy;

People Living with HIV (PLWH) . . .[See full text]

Poor . . .[See full text]

Population and Development . . .[See full text]

16.   Via Section 2 (see Comment 1) this implies a right to access artificial reproduction.  Other parts of the bill appear to be inconsistent with this. (See Comments 7,12, 15 and 17, 19 and 20.)

Reproductive Health refers to the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes;

17.  The "full range" includes morally controversial drugs, devices and procedures.  "Reproductive health related problems" include infertility of opposite sex and same sex couples.  Via Section 2 (see Comment 1) this implies a right to access artificial reproduction.  Other parts of the bill appear to be inconsistent with this. (See Comments 7,12, 15, 16, 19 and 20.)

Reproductive Health Care refers to the access to a full range of methods, facilities, services and supplies that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health-related problems. It also includes sexual health, the purpose of which is the enhancement of life and personal relations. The elements of reproductive health care include the following:

(a) family planning information and services;

(b) maternal, infant and child health and nutrition, including breastfeeding;

18.  Abortion is currently illegal in the Philippines.

(c) proscription of abortion and management of abortion complications;

(d) adolescent and youth reproductive health;

(e) prevention and management of reproductive tract infections (RTIs), HIV and AIDS and other sexually transmittable infections (STIs);

(f) elimination of violence against women;

(g) education and counseling on sexuality and reproductive health;

(h) treatment of breast and reproductive tract cancers and other gynecological conditions and disorders;

(i) male responsibility and participation in reproductive health;

19.   Re: (J)- via Section 2 (see Comment 1) this implies a right to access artificial reproduction.  Other parts of the bill appear to be inconsistent with this. (See Comments 7,12, 15, 16, 17 and 20.)

(j) prevention and treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction;

(k) reproductive health education for the adolescents; and

(l) mental health aspect of reproductive health care.

Reproductive Health Care Program refers to the systematic and integrated provision of reproductive health care to all citizens especially the poor, marginalized and those in vulnerable and crisis situations;

20.  Via Section 2 (see Comment 1) this implies a right to access artificial reproduction.  Other parts of the bill appear to be inconsistent with this. (See Comments 7,12, 15, 16, 17 and 19.)

Reproductive Health Rights refer to the rights of couples, individuals and women to decide freely and responsibly whether or not to have children; to determine the number, spacing and timing of their children; to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence; to have relevant information; and to attain the highest condition of sexual and reproductive health;

Reproductive Health and Sexuality Education . . .[See full text]

Reproductive Tract Infection (RTI) . . .[See full text]

Responsible Parenthood  . . .[See full text]

Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) . . .[See full text]

Skilled Attendant . . .[See full text]

Skilled Birth Attendance . . .[See full text]

Sustainable Human Development . . .[See full text]

SEC. 5. Midwives for Skilled Attendance

[See full text]

SEC. 6. Emergency Obstetric Care

[See full text]

SEC. 7. Access to Family Planning

21.  Requires all health care facilities to provide contraceptives, potential embryocides,  abortifacients, and contraceptive sterilization.  No exemption for denominational or private facilities.

All accredited health facilities shall provide a full range of modern family planning methods, except in specialty hospitals which may render such services on an optional basis. For poor patients, such services shall be fully covered by the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth) and/or government financial assistance on a no balance billing.

After the use of any PhilHealth benefit involving childbirth and all other pregnancy-related services, if the beneficiary wishes to space or prevent her next pregnancy, PhilHealth shall pay for the full cost of family planning.

SEC. 8. Maternal and Newborn Health Care in Crisis Situations

[See full text]

SEC. 9. Maternal Death Review

[See full text]

SEC. 10. Family Planning Supplies as Essential Medicines

22.  The National Drug Formulary is the list of drugs for which reimbursement can be had from the National Health Insurance Program. 

Products and supplies for modern family planning methods shall be part of the National Drug Formulary and the same shall be included in the regular purchase of essential medicines and supplies of all national and local hospitals and other government health units.

SEC. 11. Procurement and Distribution of Family Planning Supplies

[See full text]

SEC. 12. Integration of Responsible Parenthood and Family Planning Component in Anti-Poverty Programs

[See full text]

SEC. 13. Roles of Local Government in Family Planning Programs

23.  The amendment requested removes the statutory requirement to give priority to "family planning work" but does not preclude such a priority being assigned as a matter of policy.

The LGUs shall ensure that poor families receive preferential access to services, commodities and programs for family planning. The role of Population Officers at municipal, city and barangay levels in the family planning effort shall be strengthened. The Barangay Health Workers and volunteers shall be capacitated to give priority to family planning work help implement this Act. [Amendment requested by bill sponsors]

SEC. 14. Benefits for Serious and Life-Threatening Reproductive Health Conditions

[See full text]

SEC. 15. Mobile Health Care Service

[See full text] [Note: amendment of this section requested by bill sponsors]

SEC. 16. Mandatory Age-Appropriate Reproductive Health and Sexuality Education

[See full text] [Note: sponsors have requested the following addition to this section]

  • Parents shall exercise the option of not allowing their minor children to attend classes pertaining to Reproductive Health and Sexuality Education.
SEC. 17. Additional Duty of the Local Population Officer

Each Local Population Officer of every city and municipality shall furnish free instructions and information on responsible parenthood, family planning, breastfeeding, infant nutrition and other relevant aspects of this Act to all applicants for marriage license. In the absence of a local Population Officer, a Family Planning Officer under the Local Health Office shall discharge the additional duty of the Population Officer.

SEC. 18. Certificate of Compliance

24.  Only those wishing to marry must obtain certificates of compliance.  Those who wish to have non-marital sexual relations do not.

No marriage license shall be issued by the Local Civil Registrar unless the applicants present a Certificate of Compliance issued for free by the local Family Planning Office certifying that they had duly received adequate instructions and information on responsible parenthood, family planning, breastfeeding and infant nutrition.

SEC. 19. Capability Building of Barangay Health Workers

25.  Depending upon training norms, mandatory training could involve activities to which some workers may object for reasons of conscience.  Mere training on promotion need not do so.  Successful completion of the training and  implementation of the training at work are not statutory conditions of employment, but might be imposed by employers.

Barangay Health Workers and other community-based health workers shall undergo training on the promotion of reproductive health and shall receive at least 10% increase in honoraria, upon successful completion of training.


SEC. 20. Ideal Family Size

[See full text] [Sponsors have requested that this section be deleted from the bill.]

SEC. 21. Employers' Responsibilities

26.  The sponsors have requested that this section be deleted in its entirety because "this provision is a restatement and amplification of the existing Article 134 of the Labor Code."  Section 33 of the RH Bill will effectively expand this to include "the full range of reproductive health care" as defined, which includes morally controversial drugs, devices and procedures. 

The Labour Code permits the government to prescribe the qualifications, criteria and conditions of employment of health care personnel thus employed, making it possible for it to deny employment to conscientious objectors.

It appears that the bill sponsors plan to demand that anyone employing 200 or more people must provide "the full range of reproductive health care," with no allowance for conscientious objection even by denominational employers. (See Notes on Philippines Labour Code)

The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) shall ensure that employers respect the reproductive rights of workers. Consistent with the intent of Article 134 of the Labor Code, employers with more than two hundred (200) employees shall provide reproductive health services to all employees in their own respective health facilities. Those with less than two hundred (200) workers shall enter into partnerships with hospitals, health facilities, or health professionals in their areas for the delivery of reproductive health services.

Employers shall furnish in writing the following information to all employees and applicants:

. . . [See full text]

SEC. 22. Pro Bono Services for Indigent Women

[See full text]

SEC. 23. Sexual And Reproductive Health Programs For Persons With Disabilities (PWDs)

[See full text]

SEC. 24. Right to Reproductive Health Care Information

27.  What the government considers "fraudulent" will determine the extent of freedom of expression allowed to those who do not agree with its policies.  See Comment 34.

The government shall guarantee the right of any person to provide or receive non-fraudulent information about the availability of reproductive health care services, including family planning, and prenatal care.

The DOH and the Philippine Information Agency (PIA) shall initiate and sustain a heightened nationwide multi-media campaign to raise the level of public awareness of the protection and promotion of reproductive health and rights including family planning and population and development.

SEC. 25. Implementing Mechanisms

Pursuant to the herein declared policy, the DOH and the Local Health Units in cities and municipalities shall serve as the lead agencies for the implementation of this Act and shall integrate in their regular operations the following functions:

(a) Ensure full and efficient implementation of the Reproductive Health Care Program;

28.  "Ensuring access" to morally controversial services, products and procedures is likely to  conflict with freedom of conscience among health care workers.

29.  The state may impose training requirements that will exclude conscientious objectors from health care professions.

(b) Ensure people's access to medically safe, legal, effective, quality and affordable reproductive health supplies and services;

(c) Ensure that reproductive health services are delivered with a full range of supplies, facilities and equipment and that healthcare service providers are adequately trained for such reproductive health care delivery;

(d) Take active steps to expand the coverage of the National Health Insurance Program (NHIP), especially among poor and marginalized women, to include the full range of reproductive health services and supplies as health insurance benefits;

30.  Professional regulatory authorities will be given additional powers that may be used to restrict the exercise of freedom of conscience and discipline or expel health care workers who object to state policies for reasons of conscience.

(e) Strengthen the capacities of health regulatory agencies to ensure safe, legal, effective, quality, accessible and affordable reproductive health services and commodities with the concurrent strengthening and enforcement of regulatory mandates and mechanisms;

31.  No exemption for denominational facilities.

(f) Promulgate a set of minimum reproductive health standards for public health facilities, which shall be included in the criteria for accreditation. These minimum reproductive health standards shall provide for the monitoring of pregnant mothers, and a minimum package of reproductive health programs that shall be available and affordable at all levels of the public health system except in specialty hospitals where such services are provided on optional basis;

(g) Facilitate the involvement and participation of NGOs and the private sector in reproductive health care service delivery and in the production, distribution and delivery of quality reproductive health and family planning supplies and commodities to make them accessible and affordable to ordinary citizens;

(h) Furnish LGUs with appropriate information and resources to keep them updated on current studies and researches relating to responsible parenthood, family planning, breastfeeding and infant nutrition; and

32.  Provides a general warrant for any state action.

(i) Perform such other functions necessary to attain the purposes of this Act.

The Commission on Population (POPCOM), as an attached agency of DOH, shall serve as the coordinating body in the implementation of this Act and shall have the following functions:

(a) Integrate on a continuing basis the interrelated reproductive health and population development agenda consistent with the herein declared national policy, taking into account regional and local concerns;

33.  Authorizes coercive measures against citizens to secure "active and full participation." See Comments 8, 32.

(b) Provide the mechanism to ensure active and full participation of the private sector and the citizenry through their organizations in the planning and implementation of reproductive health care and population and development programs and projects; and

(c) Conduct sustained and effective information drives on sustainable human development and on all methods of family planning to prevent unintended, unplanned and mistimed pregnancies.

SEC. 26. Reporting Requirements

[See full text]

SEC. 27. Congressional Oversight Committee (COC)

[See full text]

SEC. 28. Prohibited Acts

The following acts are prohibited:

(a) Any healthcare service provider, whether public or private, who shall:

34.  Objectors who have drawn attention to potentially abortifacient or embryocidal effects of drugs and devices have sometimes been accused of providing "misinformation."  Those who have refused to facilitate procedures to which they object by offering contact information for a service provider have been accused of withholding information.  See Comment 27.

(1) Knowingly withhold information or restrict the dissemination thereof, or intentionally provide incorrect information regarding programs and services on reproductive health, including the right to informed choice and access to a full range of legal, medically-safe and effective family planning methods;

(2) Refuse to perform legal and medically-safe reproductive health procedures on any person of legal age on the ground of lack of third party consent or authorization. In case of married persons, the mutual consent of the spouses shall be preferred. However in case of disagreement, the decision of the one undergoing the procedure shall prevail. In the case of abused minors where parents or other family members are the respondent, accused or convicted perpetrators as certified by the proper prosecutorial office or court, no prior parental consent shall be necessary; and

35.  Some health care workers decline, for reasons of conscience, to provide contraceptives to unmarried persons or artificial reproduction for single people and patients identifying themselves as homosexuals,  They are motivated by a wish to avoid complicity in perceived wrongdoing, not by personal characteristics of the patient.  This section does not protect them.

(3) Refuse to extend health care services and information on account of the person's marital status, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, personal circumstances, or nature of work; Provided, That, the conscientious objection of a healthcare service provider based on his/her ethical or religious beliefs shall be respected; however, the conscientious objector shall immediately refer the person seeking such care and services to another healthcare service provider within the same facility or one which is conveniently accessible who is willing to provide the requisite information and services; Provided, further, That the person is not in an emergency condition or serious case as defined in RA 8344 otherwise known as "An Act Penalizing the Refusal of Hospitals and Medical Clinics to Administer Appropriate Initial Medical Treatment and Support in Emergency and Serious Cases".

36.  The exemption is limited to a refusal for reasons set out in Section 28(3).  No exemption is permitted for moral objections to contentious procedures or services. Further: some health care workers consider referral to be unacceptable because it makes them morally complicit in an act they believe to be wrong.

(b) Any public official who, personally or through a subordinate, prohibits or restricts the delivery of legal and medically-safe reproductive health care services, including family planning; or forces, coerces or induces any person to use such services.

(c) Any employer or his representative who shall require an employee or applicant, as a condition for employment or continued employment, to undergo sterilization or use or not use any family planning method; neither shall pregnancy be a ground for non-hiring or termination of employment.

(d) Any person who shall falsify a certificate of compliance as required in Section 15 of this Act; and

37.  Sponsors of the bill have requested that this subsection be deleted entirely.

(e) Any person who maliciously engages in disinformation about the intent or provisions of this Act.

SEC. 29. Penalties

Any violation of this Act or commission of the foregoing prohibited acts shall be penalized by imprisonment ranging from one (1) month to six (6) months or a fine of Ten Thousand (P 10,000.00) to Fifty Thousand Pesos (P 50,000.00) or both such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the competent court; Provided That, if the offender is a public official or employee, he or she shall suffer the accessory penalty of dismissal from the government service and forfeiture of retirement benefits. If the offender is a juridical person, the penalty shall be imposed upon the president or any responsible officer. An offender who is an alien shall, after service of sentence, be deported immediately without further proceedings by the Bureau of Immigration.

SEC. 30. Appropriations

[See full text]

SEC. 31. Implementing Rules and Regulations

[See full text]

SEC. 32-34. Separability Clause, Repealing Clause, Effectivity
SEC. 32. Separability Clause

[See full text]

SEC. 33. Repealing Clause

All other laws, decrees, orders, issuances, rules and regulations which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed, amended or modified accordingly.

SEC. 34. Effectivity

[See full text]

Note on the Philippines Labour Code
Presidential Decree No. 442, as amended

Article 157 of the Philippines Labour Code requires employers with more than 50 and fewer than 200 workers to make available free medical and dental facilities, including the service of a registered nurse if the employer's workplace is considered hazardous.  A full time registered nurse, a part-time physician and dentist and an emergency clinic must be provided at all workplaces that have 200 and fewer than 300 employees.  When there are more than 300 employees, an employer must provide the services of a full-time physician, full-time registered nurse and dentist, and provide an emergency hospital with one bed for every 100 employees.  Alternatively, the employer may contract with a nearby hospital/clinic to provide comparable service (Article 158).  The government may prescribe the qualifications, criteria and conditions of employment of the required health care personnel (Article 160).

Article 134 (cited by the RH Bill sponsors) requires these employer-maintained facilities to provide "free family planning services," including "contraceptive pills and intrauterine devices."  Section 33 of the RH Bill will effectively expand this to include "the full range of reproductive health care" as the Bill defines that term, which includes morally controversial drugs, devices and procedures.

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